Statistical Evidence in Litigation
Will Yancey, PhD, CPA
Office phone 734.744.4400
Dr. Yancey consults on audit sampling and litigation support.
Contents of this page:
Related Web pages at this Web site:
Services: Dr. Yancey provides litigation support
and other consulting services.
Disclaimer: Inclusion on this list does NOT
imply the cited work is or was a good authority. This list is NOT an exhaustive
of the relevant literature. If more than one edition exists, usually
the most recent one is shown in this list. Many of these books
are out of print and can be found from a bookseller listed here.
Maintained by ACLR.
Please e-mail your suggestions for additions and changes to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This list is not complete. Suggestions for additions and
corrections are welcome.
- Ad Hoc Committee on Professional Ethics, "Ethical Guidelines for
Statistical Practice," 37 The American Statistician 20 (1983).
- Afshartous, David, "Sample Size Determination for Binomial Proportion Confidence
Intervals: An Alternative Perspective Motivated by a Legal Case",
62 The American Statistician 27 (February 2008).
Online at http://pubs.amstat.org.
- Aitken, C. C. G., Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists,
First Edition,(Wiley, 1995).
- Aitken, C. C. G., and Franco Taroni, Statistics
and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists, Second Edition,
- Barnes, David W., Statistics as Proof: Fundamentals of
Quantitative Evidence, (Little, Brown and Company, 1983).
- Barnes, David W., and John M. Conley, Statistical Evidence
in Litigation: Methodology, Procedure, and Practice, (Little, Brown
and Company, 1986).
- Barton, A., "My Experience as an Expert Witness," 37 The
American Statistician 374 (1983).
- Brooks, James, A Lawyer's Guide to Probability and Statistics,
- Channels, N., Social Science Methods in the Legal Process,
- Curtis, W., Statistical Concepts for Attorneys, (1983).
- DeGroot, Morris H., Stephen E. Fienberg, and Joseph B. Kadane,
editors, Statistics and the Law, (Wiley, 1986, republished
- Deming, W. Edwards, "On the Presentation of Results of Sample
Surveys as Legal Evidence," 49 Journal of the American Statistical
Association 814 (1954).
- Deming, W. Edwards, "Report of the Committee on Standards of
Probability Sampling for Legal Evidence - Admissibility of Data from
Probability Sampling," Special Report, Current Business Studies of The
Society of Business Advisory Professionals, Inc., in cooperation with
the Graduate School of Business Administration of New York
University. Reprinted as appendix to Internal Revenue Service
Revenue Procedure 72-36, 1972-1 Cumulative Bulletin 797.
- Diamond, Shari Seidman, "Reference Guide on Survey Research",
Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 2nd ed., (Federal
Judicial Center, 2000), pages 229-276.
- Downton, F., "Legal Probability and Statistics," 145 Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Part 4 395 (1982).
- Eggleston, Richard, Evidence, Proof and Probability,
- Faigman, David L. et al, editors, Modern Scientific
Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony, (1997).
- Federal Judicial Center, Manual for Complex Litigation, Third
, (Federal Judicial Center, 1995),
(Page 101, Section 21.493 describes the use of sampling and
opinion surveys in complex litigation.)
- Federal Judicial Center, Reference Manual on Scientific
Evidence, 1st ed., (Federal Judicial Center, 1994.
- Federal Judicial Center, Reference Manual on Scientific
Evidence, 2nd ed., (Federal Judicial Center, 2000).
- Fienberg, Stephen E., editor, The Evolving Role of
Statistical Assessments as Evidence in the Courts,
(Springer-Verlag, 1989). (Report of the National Research Council Panel
on Statistical Assessments as Evidence in the Courts).
- Fienberg, Stephen E., and Joseph B. Kadane, "The Presentation
of Bayesian Statistical Analysis in Legal Proceedings," 32 Statistician
- Fienberg, Stephen E., Samuel H. Krislov, and Miron L. Straf,
"Understanding and Evaluating Statistical Evidence in Litigation", 36 Jurimetrics
Journal 1 (Fall 1995).
- Fienberg, Stephen E., and Mark J. Schervish, "The Relevance of
Bayesian Inference for the Presentation of Statistical Evidence and for
Legal Decisionmaking," 66 Boston University Law Review 771
- Fienberg, Stephen E., and Miron L. Straf, "Statistical
Assessments as Evidence," 145 Journal of the Royal Statistical
Society, Series A, Part 4, 410 (1982).
- Fienberg, Stephen E., and Miron L. Straf, "Statistical Evidence
in the US Courts: An Appraisal," 31 Journal of the Forensic Science
Society 259 (April 1991).
- Finkelstein, Michael O., Quantitative Methods in Law:
Studies in the Application of Mathematical Probability and
Statististics to Legal Problems, (Free Press, 1978).
- Finkelstein, Michael O., and Bruce Levin, Statistics for
Lawyers , (Springer-Verlag, 1st edition 1990, 2nd edition 2001).
- Fisher, Franklin M., "Multiple Regression in Legal Proceedings,"
80 Columbia Law Review 702 (1980).
- Fisher, Franklin M., "Statisticians, Econometricians, and
Adversary Proceedings," 81 Journal of the American Statististical
Association 277 (June 1986).
- Freeman, M., and H. Reece, editors, Science in Court, (Ashgate, 1998).
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., Statististical Reasoning in Law and
Public Policy, (Academic Press, 1988).
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., "Statistical Reasoning in the Legal
Setting," 46 The American Statistician 55 (February 1992).
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., editor, Statistical Science in the
Courtroom, (Springer-Verlag New York, 2000.
- Giannelli, P. C., and E. J. Imwinkelried, Scientific Evidence,
- Good, Philip I., Applying Statistics in the Courtroom: A New Approach for Attorneys and Expert
Witnesses, (Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2001).
- Hammack, William S., Statistics: A Primer for Lawyers,
(Carnegie Mellon University, 1994).
- Helberg, Clay, "Pitfalls in Data Analysis", (1995).
- Kadane, Jospeh B., Statistics in the Law, (Oxford University Press, 2008).
- Katz, L., "Presentation of a Confidence Interval Estimate as
Evidence in a Legal Proceeding," 29 American Statistician, 138
- Kaye, David H., "Publications on Statistics, Probability Theory,
- Kaye, David H., "Is Proof of Statistical Significance
Relevant?", 61 Washington Law Review 1333 (1986).
- Kaye, David H., "Apples and Oranges: Confidence Coefficients
the Burden of Persuasion", 73 Cornell Law Review 54 (1987).
- Kaye, David H., "What Is Bayesianism? A Guide for the
Perplexed", 28 Jurimetrics Journal 161 (Winter 1988).
- Kaye, David H., "Statistical Evidence: How to Avoid the
Effect' of Getting Stumped", --- Inside Litigation 21 (April
- Kaye, David H., "Improving Legal Statistics", 24 Law and
Society Review 1255 (1990).
- Kaye, David H., "Statistics for Lawyers and Law for
Statisticians," 89 Michigan Law Review 1520 (1991).
- Kaye, David H., "DNA Evidence: Probability, Population
and the Courts", 7 Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 101
- Kaye, David H., and David A. Freedman, "Reference Guide on
Statistics", Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 1st ed.,
(Federal Judicial Center, 1994), pages 333-414.
- Kaye, David H., and David A. Freedman, "Reference Guide on
Statistics", Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 2nd ed.,
(Federal Judicial Center, 2000), pages 83-178.
- Kimball, "Errors of the Third Kind in Statistical Consulting,"
52 American Statistical Assocation Journal 133 (1958).
- Klemm, Rebecca J., "A Court-Appointed Expert as the Sole Source
of Statistical Analysis", 34 Jurimetrics Jorunal 149 (Winter
- Kweit, M., and R. Kweit, Concepts and Methods for Political
- Lembert, "Statistics in the Courtroom: Building on Rubinfeld,"
85 Columbia Law Review 1098 (1985).
- Loewen, James W., Social Science in the Courtroom:
Statistical Techniques and Methods for Winning Class Action Suits,
(Lexington Books, 1982).
- Meier, Paul, "Damned Liars and Expert Witnesses," 81 Journal
of the American Statististical Association 269 (June 1986).
- Michelson, Stephan, The Expert: The Statistical Analyst in Litigation, 2006.
- Moenssens, Andre A., Ray Edward Moses, and Fred E. Inbau, Scientific
Evidence in Criminal Cases, (Foundation Press, 1973).
- Napley, David, "Lawyers and Statisticians," 145 Journal of
the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Part 4 422 (1982).
- Newell, D., "The Role of Statistician as an Expert Witness," 145
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Part 4 403
(1982), part of discussion series at pp. 395-438.
- Peterson, Donald W., "Statistical Inference in Litigation," 46
Law and Contemporary Problems 1 (1983).
- Reich, "How to Evaluate an Expert's Statistical Analysis," 28
Practical Lawyer 69 (1982).
- Rubinfeld, "Econometrics in the Courtroom," 85 Columbia Law
Review 1048 (1985).
- Saks, M. J., and R. Van Duizend, The Use of Scientific
Evidence in Litigation, (National Center for State Courts, 1983).
- Sawyer, Lawrence B., "The Lawyer, the Statistician, and the
Internal Auditor", 24 Internal Auditor 9 (Summer 1967).
- Slottje, Daniel J., editor, The Role of the Academic
Economist in Litigation Support, (Elsevier, 1999).
- Solomon, Herbert, "Measurement and Burden of Evidence," In J.
Tiago de Oliveira and B. Epstein, editors, Some Recent Advances in
Statistics , (London: Academic Press, 1982), pp. 1-27.
- Solomon, Herbert, "Confidence Intervals in Legal Settings," In
Morris H. DeGroot, Stephen E. Fienberg, and Joseph B. Kadane, editors, Statistics
and the Law, (Wiley, 1986, reprinted in 1994), pp. 455-473.
- Tillers, P., and E. D. Green, editors, Probability and
Inference in the Law of Evidence, (1988).
- Tribe, Laurence H., "Trial by Mathematics: Precision and Ritual
in the Legal Process," 84 Harvard Law Review 1329 (April 1971).
- Vinson, D., and P. Anthony, Social Science Research Methods
for Litigation, (1985).
- Wehmhoefer, R., Statistics in Litigation: Practical
Application for Lawyers, (McGraw-Hill, 1985).
- White, Colin, "Unkind Cuts at Statisticians," 18 The
American Statistician 15 (1964).
- Wigmore, J. H., The Science of Judicial Proof, 3rd Edition,
- Zeisel, Hans and David Kaye, Prove It with Figures:
Empirical Methods in Law and Litigation, (Springer-Verlag, 1997).
Admissibility of expert evidence in general is at willyancey.com/evidence.htm
Cases on sampling for Medicare overpayments are at
Cases on sampling for sales and use tax audits are at willyancey.com/sampling.htm
Cases on sampling for anti-trust and related issues are at willyancey.com/statistical_evidence.htm#Economic
- Dendy v. Washington Hospital
Center, 431 F. Supp. 873 (1977).
- EEOC v. Sears. Roebuck & Co.,
628 F. Supp. 1264 (1986).
- Hazelwood School District v. United States, 433 U.S.
- Leisner v. New York Telephone
Co., 358 F. Supp. 359, (1973).
- Vuyanich v. Republic National Bank, 723 F.2d 1195 (5th
- Vuyanich v. Republic National Bank, 505 F. Supp. 224
(N.D. Tex. 1980).
- Baldus, David C. & James W. L. Cole, Statistical Proof
of Discrimination , (Shepard's, 1980, supplement 1987).
- Bessey, B.L., K.J. Gilmartin, F.B. Stancavage, "A Review of
Statistical Books for Use in Employment Discrimination Lawsuits," Jurimetrics
Journal, vol. 32, (1992), pp. 473-485.
- Burstein, James A., and Jeri A. Lindahl, "Defending an Age
Discrimination Case Involving Statistical Evidence" Employee
Relations Law Journal , vol. 18, number 2, (Autumn 1992), pp.
- Connolly, et al, Use of Statistics in Equal Employment
Opportunity Litigation, (1992).
- Cranor, Carl, and Kurt Nutting, "Scientific and Legal Standards
of Statistical Evidence in Toxic Tort and Discrimination Suits," Law
and Philosophy , vol. 9, number 2, (May 1990), pp. 115-156.
- Dempster, Arthur P., "Employment Discrimination and Statistical
Science", 3 Statistical Science 149 (1988).
- Fienberg, Stephen E.., "The Increasing Sophistication of
Statistical Assessments as Evidence in Discrimination Litigation - A
Comment on Kaye," Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.
77, (1982), pp. 784-787.
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., "A Clarification of Some Statistical
Issues in Watson v. Fort Worth Bank and Trust", Jurimetrics Journal,
vol. 29, (Spring 1989) pp. 267- .
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., "Comments on Nesson," Cardozo Law
Review , vol. 13, (November 1991), pp. 817-829.
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., "Statistical Reasoning in the Legal
Setting," The American Statistician, vol. 46, number 1,
(February 1992), pp. 55-69.
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., "Methods for Assessing the Sensitivity of
Statistical Comparisons Used in Title VII Cases to Omitted Variables",
33 Jurimetrics Journal 19 (Fall 1992).
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., "Statistical Issues Arising in Equal
Employment Litigation", 36 Jurimetrics Journal 353 (Summer
- Gastwirth, Joseph L., Abba Krieger, and Paul Rosenbaum, "How a
Court Accepted and Impossible Explanation," 48 The American
Statististician 313 (November 1994).
- Gaughan, Patrick A., and Thomas H. Hodson, Jr., "Statistical
Analysis in Wrongful Discharge/Title VII Litigation," In Patrick A.
Robert J. Thornton, editors, Litigation Economics, (JAI Press,
- Gray, Mary W., "Can Statistics Tell Us What We Do Not Want To
Hear?", 8 Statistical Science 144 (1993).
- Gronhovd, Sheri L., "Social Science Statistics in the Courtroom:
The Debate Resurfaces in McCleskey v. Kemp," 62 Notre Dame Law
Review 688 (1987).
- Howard, William M., "The Decline and Fall of Statistical
Evidence as Proof of Employment Discrimination," 45 Labor Law
- Kaye, David H., "Statistical Evidence of Discrimination," 77
Journal of the American Statistical Association 773 (1982).
- Kaye, David H., and Mikel Aickin, editors, Statistical
Methods in Discrimination Litigation, (Marcel Dekker, 1986).
- Killingsworth, Mark R., "Analyzing Employment Discrimination:
From the Seminar Room to the Courtroom," Papers and Proceedings of
American Economic Review, (1993).
- McKeown, "Statistics for Wage Discrimination Cases: Why the
Statististical Models Used Cannot Prove or Disprove Sex
Discrimination," 67 Indiana Law Journal 633 (1992).
- Meier, Paul, Jerome Sacks, and Sandy Zabell, "What Happened in
Hazelwood: Statistics, Employment Discrimination, and the 80% Rule,"
--- American Bar Foundation Research Journal 139 (Winter 1984).
- Paetzold, Ramona and Steven L. Willborn, The Statistics of
Discrimination: Using Statistical Evidence in Discrimination Cases,
(McGraw-Hill/Shepard's, 1994 with annual updates).
- Shoben, E. W., "Differential Pass-Fail Rates in Employment
Testing: Statistical Proof Under Title VII," 91 Harvard Law Review
- Smith, A. B., Jr., and T. G. Abram, "Quantitative Analysis and
Proof of Employment Discrimination," University of Illinois Law
Review, (1981), pp. 33-74.
- Steward, Dwight, and M. Douglas Berg, "Lies, Damn Lies, and
Statistics: A View from a Statistical Expert", State Bar of Texas,
Advanced Employment Law, February 21-22, 2003.
- Sugrue, Thomas J., and William B. Fairley, "A Case of Unexamined
Assumptions: The Use and Misuse of the Statistical Analysis of
Castaneda/Hazelwood in Discrimination Litigation", 24 Boston
College Law Review 925 (1983).
Economic Damages in Anti-Trust and
- City of Tuscaloosa v. Harcos Chemicals Inc., 158 F.3d
laws.findlaw.com/11th/956234man.html , (11th Cir. 1998).
- Independent Gasoline Antitrust Litigation, 79 F.R.D.
552, 561-62 (D.Md. 1978). Court admitted statistical studies in an
- Kuriansky v. Natural Mold Shoe Corp., et al, 519
N.Y.S.2d 88 (Sup. 1987).
- Mid-Atlantic Toyota Litigation, 525 F.Supp. 1265, 1285
(D.Md. 1981). Court admitted statistical studies in an anti-trust
- U.S. v. Columbia Pictures, 25 F. R. D. 497, (S.D. New
York 1960). Court admitted statistical studies in an anti-trust case.
- Finkelstein and Levenbach, "Regression Estimates of Damages in
Price-Fixing Cases," 46 Law and Contemporary Problems145 (1983).
- Blue Cross & Blue Shield of New Jersey, Inc. v. Philip
Morris, Inc., 113 F. Supp.2d 345 (E.D. N. Y. 2000). Court
use of statistical methods do not violate defendants' Seventh Amendment
right to a jury trial.
- Cimino v. Raymark Industries, Inc., 151 F.3d 297 (5th
Cir. 1998). Court rejected sample of 160 cases out of 2,288 class
members as sufficient evidence to establish liability and damages for
- In re Fibreboard Corp., 893 F.2d 706 (5th Cir.
1990). Appellate court rejected sample of 41 cases out of 2,990 class members
as sufficient to establish causation and damages for entire class.
- American Civil Liberties Union, Amicus Curiae Brief in Department
of Commerce et al v. House of Representatives et al, (October
- Department of Commerce et al v. House of Representatives et
al , US Supreme Court Docket No. 98-404, (January 25, 1999),
http://laws.findlaw.com/us/000/98-404.html . Court
permanently enjoined the planned use of statistical sampling to
determine the population for congressional apportionment
purposes. However, the Census Bureau may use statistical sampling
for other purposes.
- US House Committee on Government, House Report 104-821,"Sampling and Statistical Adjustment in the Decennial Census:
(September 24, 1996).
References on sampling in financial audits are at www.willyancey.com/sampling-financial.htm
References on sampling in income tax audits are at www.willyancey.com/sampling-income-tax.html
References on sampling in sales and use tax audits are at
- Freedman, D. A., "The Mean Versus the Median: A Case Study in
the 4-R Act Litigation", 3 Journal of Business & Economic
Statistics 1 (1985).
- Gastwirth, Joseph L. "Statistical Reasoning in the Legal
Setting", 46 The American Statistician 55 (February
1992). Pages 59-60 have Gastwirth's summary of a property tax
Toxic Tort Litigation
- Blue Cross v. Philip Morris,
113 F.Supp.2d 345 (E.D. New York, 2000). Extensive use of surveys
and statistical analyis in a suit against tobacco companies.
- Cimino v. Raymark Industries, 151 F.3d 297 (5th
Cir.1998). Court rejected use of sampling to determine damages in
an asbestos claims class action.
- In re Fibreboard Corporation, 893 F.2d 706 (5th
Cir.1990). Court rejected use of proof of damages on a classwide
basis through the use of expert and statistical evidence in asbestos
claims class action.
- Hilao v. Estate of Marcos, 103 F.3d 767 (9th Cir.1996).
Court upheld proof of damages on an aggregated basis in a class action
suit under the Alien Tort Claims Act by victims of Ferdinand Marcos's
regime in the Philippines.
- Brannigan, Vincent M., Vicki M. Bier, and Christine Berg, "Risk,
Statistical Inference, and the Law of Evidence: The Use of
Epidemiological Data in Toxic Tort Cases," 12 Risk Analysis 343
- Cohn, Victor, News & Numbers: A Guide to Reporting
Statistical Claims and Controversies in Health and Related Fields,
- Hurwitz, W. J., "Environmental Health: An Analysis of Available
and Proposed Remedies for Victims of Toxic Waste Contamination," 7 American
Journal of Law and Medicine 61 (1981).
- Kaye, David H., "The Limits of the Preponderance of the Evidence
Standard: Justifiably Naked Statistical Evidence and Multiple
Causation," --- American Bar Foundation Research Journal 487
- Luus, H. G., F. O. Muller, and B. H. Meyer, "Statistical
Significance versus Clinical Relevance - Part I. The Essential Role of
the Power of
a Statistical Test," 76 South African Medical Journal 568
- Thompson, Melissa Moore, "Comment: Causal Inference in
Epidemiology: Implications for Toxic Tort Litigation", 71 North
Carolina Law Review 247 (1992).